eu command line

Eucalypt is available as a command line tool, eu, which reads inputs and writes outputs.

Everything it does in between is purely functional and there is no mutable state.

It is intended to be simple to use in unix pipelines.

eu --version # shows the current eu version
eu --help # lists command line options

Inputs

Files / stdin

eu can read several inputs, specified by command line arguments.

Inputs specify text data from:

  • files
  • stdin
  • internal resources (ignored for now)
  • (in future) HTTPS URLS or Git refs

...of which the first two are the common case. In the simplest case, file inputs are specified by file name, stdin is specified by -.

So

eu a.yaml - b.eu

...will read input from a.yaml, stdin and b.eu. Each will be read into eucalypt's core representation and merged before output is rendered.

Input format

Inputs must be one of the formats that eucalypt supports, which at present, are:

  • yaml
  • json
  • toml
  • csv
  • text

Of these the first three (yaml, json, toml) return blocks and the last two return lists. Inputs that return lists frequently to be named (see below) to allow them to be used.

Usually the format is inferred from file extension but it can be overridden on an input by input basis using a format@ prefix.

For instance:

eu yaml@a.txt json@- yaml@b.txt

...will read YAML from a.txt, JSON from stdin and YAML from b.txt.

Named inputs

Finally inputs can be named using a name= prefix. This alters the way that data is merged by making the contents of an input available in a block or list with the specified name, instead of at the top level.

Suppose we have two inputs:

foo: bar
x: 42

then

eu a.yaml b.eu

would generate:

foo: bar
x: 42

but

eu data=a.yaml b.eu

would generate:

data:
  foo: bar

x: 42

This can be useful for various reasons, particularly when:

  • the form of the input's content is not known in advance
  • the input's content is a list rather than a block

Full input syntax

The full input syntax is therefore:

[name=][format@][URL/file]

This applies at the command line and also when specifying imports in .eu files.

stdin defaulting

When no inputs are specified and eu is being used in a pipeline, it will accept input from stdin by default, making it easy to pipe JSON or YAML from other tools into eu.

For example, this takes JSON from the aws CLI and formats it as YAML to stdout.

aws s3-api list-buckets | eu

How inputs are merged

When several inputs are listed, names from earlier inputs become available to later inputs, but the content that will be rendered is that of the final input.

The common use case is a final input which contains logic to inspect or process data provided by the previous inputs (potentially coming in from previous processing on stdin).

If you want to render contents of earlier inputs verbatim, you need a named input to provide a name for that content which you can then use.

Outputs

In the current version, eu can only generate one output.

Output format

Output is rendered as YAML by default. Other formats can be specified using the -x command line option:

eu -x json # for JSON
eu -x text # for plain text

JSON is such a common case that there is a shortcut: -j.

Output targets

By default, eucalypt renders all the content of the final input to output.

There are various ways to override this. First, :target metadata can be specified in the final input to identify different parts for potential export.

To list the targets found in the specified inputs, use the -t flag.

eu -l

...and a particular target can be selected for render using -t.

eu -t my-target

If there is a target called "main" it will be used by default unless another target is specified.

Evaluands

In addition to inputs, an evaluand can be specified at the command line. This is a eucalypt expression which has access to all names defined in the inputs and replaces the input body or targets as the data to export.

It can be used to select content or derive values from data in the inputs:

$ aws s3api list-buckets | eu -e 'Buckets map(lookup(:CreationDate)) head'
2016-12-25T14:22:30.000Z

...or just to test out short expressions or command line features:

$ eu -e '{a: 1 b: 2 * 2}' -j
{"a": 1, "b": 4}

Suppressing prelude

A standard prelude containing many functions and operators is automatically prepended to the input list.

This can be suppressed using -Q if it is not required or if you would like to provide an alternative.

Warning

Many very basic facilities - like the definition of true and false and if - are provided by the prelude so suppressing it leaves a very bare environment.

Debugging

eu has a variety of command line switches for dumping out internal representations or tracing execution. eu --help lists them all.